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# Monday, December 16, 2013

Episode 296

Ward Bell on Breeze

Monday, December 16, 2013 10:58:00 PM (GMT Standard Time, UTC+00:00)
# Thursday, December 12, 2013

HTML5 provides a number of new APIs that developers can call from client-side JavaScript. We will review a few of them here.

DETECTING BROWSER CAPABILITIES

Not every browser supports every new API. If you attempt to call an API not supported by the current, browser, the browser is likely to throw an exception, which could be a bad experience for your users. For Internet apps, it’s best to test if a feature is supported before calling it. Ideally, you should find an alternate way to provide similar functionality for unsupported browsers. At a minimum, though, your application should not crash.

In any event, the first step is figuring out whether the current browser supports the feature you are interested in. For HTML5 API features, the Modernizr library is a good tool to do this. You can download the latest Modernizr script from http://modernizr.com/ and you can use it in your web page by adding a script tag, pointing to the location on your server where you save the modernizer JavaScript file,  as in the example below

<script src="/scripts/modernizr-2.5.1.js"></script> 

The script tag above must appear before any script you write that uses modernizr. The script above creates an object named “Modernizr” and that object contains a lot of Boolean properties, each corresponding to an HTML5 feature and each returning true only if that feature is supported in the current browser.

For example, Modernizr.canvas returns true if the current browser supports the <Canvas> tag and its associated APIs. In practice, you can write code like the following to avoid JavaScript errors

if (!Modernizr.canvas){
    // Code that uses the CANVAS APISs
}
else {
    // Alternate code for older browsers
} 

SELECTING ELEMENTS

HTML5 now provides more ways to select elements than the traditional document.getElementById()

Now, you can pass the name of a class to document.getElementsByClassName () to return a set of all elements to which the class is applied.

Also, document.querySelector and document.querySelectorAll allow accept a CSS selector, such as “#Div1” as an argument and return matching elements. The difference between the two methods is that querySelector returns the first match, while querySelectorAll returns the set of all matching elements.

You can even chain together these For example, you can do the following to select all spans with the class “MyClass”:

var x1 = document.querySelectorAll (".MyClass");  

var x2 = x1.querySelectorAll ("span");  

CANVAS

The <canvas> tag allows you to create and manipulate images on a drawing surface. The advantage of the canvas is that you get control of these images down to the pixel level. The disadvantage is that you get control of the images down to the pixel level, which can be a lot of work.

To begin using this tool, add a <canvas> tag to your markup and set appropriate properties, such as width, height, style, and id.  A canvas is simply a container for drawing objects. You will need to use JavaScript to draw objects onto its surface.

The key to working with a canvas object in JavaScript is to get a reference to the canvas’s Context. The code below gets this reference. Similar code appears in every canvas-manipulating script I write:

<script>
 var canvas = document.getElementById("MyCanvas");
 var ctx = canvas.getContext("2d");
</script> 

Once you have a reference to the canvas’s context (the ctx variable, in the example above), you can use this cccccontext to draw shapes on the canvas.

  • beginPath(): Resets the current path. Necessary if you have been using the context object to draw something and now want to begin drawing something new.
    moveTo(): Move the current postion to a given x,y position in order to begin drawing from there
    lineTo(): Draw a line from the current position to a new position
    fill(): Complete a 2-dimensional shape (if not already complete) and fill it in with the current fill color and style
    fillRect(): Draw a rectangle and fill it with color
    arc()    Draw a curve

Below are several examples of using JavaScript drawing and filling simple shapes on a canvas with the id of “MyCanvas”.

JavaScript to draw a triangle on a canvas

var canvas = document.getElementById("MyCanvas");
ctx = canvas.getContext("2d");
ctx.beginPath();
ctx.moveTo(25, 25);
ctx.lineTo(75, 100);
ctx.lineTo(25, 100);
ctx.fill(); 

JavaScript to Draw and fill a rectangle on a canvas

var canvas = document.getElementById("MyCanvas");
ctx = canvas.getContext("2d");
ctx.beginPath();
ctx.fillStyle = "rgb(500,0,0)"; 
ctx.fillRect(25, 150, 150, 100); 

JavaScript to Draw a circle on a canvas

var canvas = document.getElementById("MyCanvas");
ctx = canvas.getContext("2d");
ctx.beginPath();
ctx.arc(125,375,100,0,2*Math.PI, false);
ctx.fillStyle = "Blue";
ctx.fill(); 

Here are the results of the JavaScript above:

image

“DATA DASH” ATTRIBUTES

In the past, HTML defined a finite list of tags and attributes that it considered valid markup. This changes with HTML5. Now, any attribute that begins with “data-” (pronounced “datadash”) is considered valid markup. In fact, such attributes have a super power, in that you can access them in JavaScript, via the object’s data collection.

For example, if I have the following markup in my page:

<div data-firstname="David" data-lastname="Giard" id="fName"> 

, I can access the data stored with the datadash attributes via the following JavaScript:

var div = getElementById("fName");
var fn = div.data("firstname");
var ln = div.data("lastname"); 

WEB STORAGE

Web storage is a feature of HTML5 that allows you to write JavaScript to store data on the client. This is useful if you want to maintain state as the user navigates from page to page or if they close the browser and return to your site at a later time.

There are two types of web storage – Local Storage and Session Storage. The difference between these two is that session storage is reset after the user closes the browser, while local storage persists between sessions.

The syntax of the two web storage types is very similar. The window object contains 2 properties – localStorage and sessionStorage to access local storage and session storage respectively. You can store data in these by assigning creating a property and assigning a value to it, as in the following JavaScript example:

var lStorage = window.localStorage;
lStorage.lastProductViewed = “Widget”;
var sStorage = window.sessionStorage;
sStorage.currentProduct = “Widget2”;
var product = lStorage.lastProductViewed; 

GEOLOCATION

Geolocation is a feature that allows the browser to determine the physical location of the user. Before describing the API, it is important to understand some limitations of Geolocation.

In order to use the geolocation API, the user must turn on location tracking in their browser. When a script first make a call to the geolocation API, the browser may prompt the user for permission to turn on this feature. 

Location is determined by one or more of the following methods: IP address tracking; GPS; Wi-Fi; Cell Phone Tower triangulation; and user-defined settings. Not all these features may be available and the accuracy and precision may vary from one feature to the next, or even from one day to the next.

The API is relatively straightforward: The navigator.geolocation exposes the getCurrentPosition method, which returns a position object. The only trick is that this method runs asynchronously, so you must pass to getCurrentPosition the name of a function to call when the method returns successfully. This function will accept the return value (a position object) as a parameter. The position object contains properties, such as

You may also pass to getcurrentPosition the name of a function to call if an error occurs.

A sample JavaScript syntax is below:

navigator.geolocation.getCurrentPosition(showPosition, showError);
var coords = position.coords;
var lat = coords.latitude;
var lng = coords.longitude;
position.coords contains a number of useful properties, including latitude, longitude, accuracy, altitude, altitudeAccuracy, heading (direction of movement), and speed. 

CONCLUSION

In this article, I described some of the new JavaScript APIs introduced with HTML5.

In this series, I introduced some of the concepts and features of HTML5 and CSS3.

HTML5 | Web
Thursday, December 12, 2013 8:40:00 PM (GMT Standard Time, UTC+00:00)
# Wednesday, December 11, 2013

In my last article in this series, I covered a few of the new features introduced with CSS3. This article introduces some more new CSS features.

A WORD ABOUT COMPATIBILITY

Most browser vendors began working on CSS3 features before they became full recommendations by the W3C. As a result, some implementations are specific to certain browsers. To accommodate these, it is sometimes necessary to precede a style name with a vendor prefix, as in the following example:

#title {
    transform:rotate(-15deg);
    -ms-transform:rotate(-15deg); 
    -moz-transform:rotate(-15deg);
    -webkit-transform:rotate(-15deg);
    -o-transform:rotate(-15deg); 
}

 

Below is a list of prefixes and the browser(s) for which they are intended.

Style feature Browser(s)
feature W3C Standard
-ms-feature Internet Explorer
-moz-feature Firefox
-webkit-feature Safari and Chrome
-o-feature Opera

TRANSFORM

The new “transform” style can be used to rotate skew, or scale an object. Let’s go over each of these.

ROTATE

The “transform:rotate” style rotates an object around its center point. It accepts an argument indicating the amount by which to rotate – positive values rotate clockwise and negative numbers rotate counter-clockwise. The example below rotates an object 15 degrees counter-clockwise from the horizontal.

#Div1 {
   transform:rotate(-15deg);
} 

This is one of the styles that requires vendor-specific prefixes in order to work in all browsers. With the prefixes in place, you will need to add the following styles

#Div1 {
   transform:rotate(-15deg);
   -ms-transform:rotate(-15deg); /* IE  */
   -moz-transform:rotate(-15deg); /* Firefox */
   -webkit-transform:rotate(-15deg); /* Safari, Chrome */
   -o-transform:rotate(-15deg); /* Opera */
} 

The results would look something like this:

image

SKEW

The “transform:skew” style tilts an objects tilt an object. There are three variations of this style: “transform:skewX” (which tilts an object along the x-axis); “transform:skewY” (which tilts an object along the y-axis); and “transform:skew” (which tilts an object along both axes). The first two styles accept a single parameter, indicating how many degrees to tilt the object in the appropriate direction.  The third style accepts 2 parameters: one for the x-tilt and one for the y-tilt. Positive arguments skew an object up or to the right; negative arguments tilt it down or to the left.

This style still requires the vendor-specific prefixes to make it work on all browsers.

An example is below

   #x
   {
    transform: skewX(150deg);
    -ms-transform: skewX(150deg);
    -moz-transform: skewX(150deg);
    -webkit-transform: skewX(150deg);
    -o-transform: skewX(150deg);
   } 

This will skew Div1 similar to the following

image

SCALE

The “transform:scale” style and its variations resize an object. There are three variations of this style: “transform:scaleX” (which resizes an object horizontally); “transform:scaleY” (which resizes an object vertically); and “transform:scale” (which resizes an object along both axes). These styles all accept a parameter to indicate the factor by which to resize the target selected object or objects. A factor greater than 1 will make an object larger, while a factor below 1 will shrink the object.

This style is ideal for event filter selections, such as “:hover”, which is applied when the user move his or her mouse over an object.

The “transform:scale” style still requires the vendor-specific prefixes to make it work on all browsers.

An example is below

#Div1: hover
{
    transform: scale(factor);
    -ms-transform: scale(factor);
    -moz-transform: scale(factor);
    -webkit-transform: scale(factor);
    -o-transform: scale(factor);
} 

ANIMATIONS

The “animation” style allows you to transition from one style to another and to control how and how long that transition takes place. This is done by referencing a keyframes declaration that lists the styles and how the transition should occur. In the following example, the “blackgraywhite” keyframe defines the background color of an object changing from black through various shades of gray to white.

@keyframes blackgraywhite
   {
    0%   {background: #000000;}
    25%  {background: #777777;}
    50%  {background: #aaaaaa;}
    75%  {background: #dddddd;}
    100% {background: #ffffff;}
   }
#Div1
{
 animation:  blackgraywhite 8s;
}

Applying the “animation: blackgraywhite” style to Div1 causes it to start out black and slowly transform to white. The entire transition lasts 8 seconds, thanks to the parameter at the end.

We can reverse the transition (from white, back to black) by adding the optional “alternate” argument and we can keep this transition going forever by adding the optional “infinite” argument.

#Div1
{
 animation:  blackgraywhite 8s infinite alternate;
} 

TRANSITIONS

Transitions are similar to animations in that you can define how long it takes to apply a style; however, they apply to other applied styles and they are typically in response to user event filters, such as “:hover”. By default, when such a style is applied (when the user moves the mouse over an object), the new style is applied instantly. To apply a transition, define two style sets and add the “transition” style to the first one. The transition allows arguments to specify how long a transition will take and what to which styles the transition applies.  The sample below tells the browser to change green text on a white background to white text on a green background and to take 2 seconds to make this transition.

#Div1 {
    background: white;
    color:green
    transition: all 2s;
}
#Div1:hover {
    background: green;
    color:white
}

CONCLUSION

In this and in the previous article of this series, we covered many of the new features of CSS3.

HTML5 | Web
Wednesday, December 11, 2013 8:28:00 PM (GMT Standard Time, UTC+00:00)
# Sunday, December 8, 2013

NOTE: If you are unfamiliar with Cascading Style Sheets, please check out my earlier article on the basics of CSS.

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) have been around for years. They contain styling information to apply to a web page and they are a recommended way to separate content from layout. The Worldwide Web Consortium (W3C) released a new set of CSS recommendations – known as “CSS3” – at about the same time they released the HTML3 recommendations, so these two specification sets are often spoken of together. CSS3 adds a number of new and useful selectors, selector filters, and styles to provide more flexibility in styling web pages.

VALIDATION

CSS3 adds a number of filters to refine selector criteria. Some of these support valid and invalid input.

For example, if a web page contains an input textbox with the “required” attribute, that textbox is invalid until the user types something into it. We can specify a different style for valid versus invalid input, using the “:valid” and “:invalid” selection filters, as shown below

input:invalid {
    border:3px solid red;
 }
 input:valid {
    border:3px solid gray;
 }
…
<input type=“textid=“FirstNamename=“FirstNamerequired> 

In the example above, the “FirstName” textbox displays with a red border until the user types text into it.

FONTS

Font types are controlled by the “font-family” style. This style accepts a list of preferred fonts for the selection.  In earlier CSS versions, a list was necessary because browsers were unable to display a font unless it was physically installed on the user’s machine. If you wanted to display text using an unusual font, you had to either convince each user to install this font locally, or convert the stylized font text to a picture.

With CSS3, you can use the “@font-face” declaration to define a server-side font; then, point the font-family style to that font. This gives far more flexibility and control when applying fonts to text.

The syntax is

@font-face {
 font-family: FriendlyFontName;
 src: url('fontname.woff') format('woff');
}
selector {
 font-family: FriendlyFontName;
} 

WOFF is a common file format that contains font information. An example (using the desyrel font, found at fontsquirrel.com), is listed below:

@font-face 
   {
    font-family: desyrel;
    src: url('desyrel-webfont.woff') format('woff');
   }
   .wreckless 
   {
    font-family: desyrel, Arial;
    font-size: 30pt;
   } 

The style above assumes that the desyrel-webfont.woff file is in the same folder as the web page being accessed. The results would look something like this:

image

TEXT SHADOWS

Text shadows were nearly impossible to achieve with earlier version of CSS. Again, developers had to resort to pictures of text. But with CSS3, the “text-shadow” style accomplishes this. This style accepts 4 arguments: for the horizontal offset (positive values to the right), vertical offset (positive values down), blur (higher numbers cause blurrier shadows), and color of the shadow. The following example causes a gray dropshadow below and to the right of the text in Div1:

   #Div1 
   {
    text-shadow: 30pt 25pt 15px gray;
   } 

Here is sample text with that style applied:

image

RESIZE

With the CSS3 “resize” style, you can declaratively allow users to resize an object by dragging its edges. The style takes the following parameters

resize: The direction to allow resizing (none, horizontal, vertical, or both)

overflow: Always “auto”

max-width: (optional) The maximum width to which a user may resize the object

max-height: (optional) The maximum height to which a user may resize the object

The following example allows users to resize Div1 horizontally to a maximum width of 600 pixels and vertically as much as they want.

#Div1{    
    resize: both;
    overflow: auto; 
    max-width: 600px; 
} 

ROUNDED CORNERS

A few years ago, everyone rushed to add rounded corners to their web layouts. The problem was that this was difficult to do with the CSS of the time. With CSS3, it is straightforward to round the corners of an object using the new “border-radius” style and its derivatives.

Border-radius style rounds all 4 corners of an object; while “border-top-left-radius”, “border-bottom-left-radius”, “border-top-right-radius”, and “border-bottom-right-radius” styles each rounds only a single corner of an object. Increase the parameter value to provide more curvature to the object corners.

The following example, rounds the two left corners of Div1.

#Div1 {
  border-top-left-radius:2em;
  border-bottom-left-radius:2em;
} 

The results are something like the object below

image

CONCLUSION

In this article, we covered a few of the new styles introduced in CSS3. In the next article, we will demonstrate a few more CSS3 features.

HTML5 | Web
Sunday, December 8, 2013 9:18:00 PM (GMT Standard Time, UTC+00:00)
# Saturday, December 7, 2013

The <input> tag has been around a long time and supports a number of values for the “type” attribute (“text”, “checkbox”, “hidden”, etc.) HTML5 adds a number of new allowed values to the input type attribute. These are designed to capture specific types of input data. Allowed values are

  • color
  • date
  • datetime
  • datetime-local
  • email
  • month
  • number
  • range
  • search
  • tel
  • time
  • url
  • week

For example, if you want the user to enter a color value, use the following markup:

<input type="color" name="MyColor">

In Chrome, this markup renders a button that, when clicked, displays the following popup, allowing users to select the color of their choice.

image

Some browsers render different controls for these input types. For example, Chrome renders a popup calendar for the date type and a color picker for the color type. Browsers that don’t support custom controls simply render a textbox.

Even if no special control is rendered, the behavior of these objects is affected by the type value. Two properties – valid and invalid – were added to input tags in HTML5 and these property values change depending on the input type value and the data entered by the user. For example, if a user attempts to enter text into a <input type=“number”> control, the valid property will be set to false and the invalid property will be set to true. You can access this property either through JavaScript or through CSS, which is a good way to provide visual cues that a user has not correctly completed a form.

The new Input types are a great way to make it easier for users to input data into your forms; to restrict user input based on the expected data use; and to validate form input.

HTML5 | Web
Saturday, December 7, 2013 9:06:00 PM (GMT Standard Time, UTC+00:00)
# Friday, December 6, 2013

Two of my favourite new attributes to input tags are “autofocus” and “placeholder”.

AUTOFOCUS

The “autofocus” attribute causes the cursor to advance to a control when the page loads. This serves as a great convenience to the user, who can begin entering data into a form immediately. Previously, I would write JavaScript to accomplish this. Obviously, you should have only one “autofocus” attribute on a page. Below is an example:

<input type="text" 
    name="First" 
    autofocus  />

PLACEHOLDER

The “placeholder” attribute displays text within a control without modifying the value of that control. Placeholder text disappears when a user starts typing in an input control. This is useful for offering helpful advice about what to enter in a textbox. Below is an example of an INPUT tag with the PLACEHOLDER attribute set.

<input type="text" 
    name="First" 
    placeholder="Enter First Name"  />

In Internet Explorer 11, the markup above renders like the image below:

image

In some browsers (such as IE 11), the placeholder text disappears as soon as the user selects the input element; in other browsers, the text remains until the user begins typing.

In all cases, the placeholder text is never submitted with the form values. It is only for display.

CONCLUSION

In this article, we reviewed how to use two new attributes introduced in HTML 5.

HTML5 | Web
Friday, December 6, 2013 8:55:00 PM (GMT Standard Time, UTC+00:00)
# Thursday, December 5, 2013

HTML5 introduced a few new tags to the markup language. Below is a partial list of these tags:

  • article
  • aside
  • audio
  • canvas
  • command
  • datalist
  • details
  • embed
  • figure
  • figcaption
  • footer
  • header
  • hgroup
  • keygen
  • mark
  • meter
  • nav
  • output
  • progress
  • rp
  • rt
  • section
  • source
  • summary
  • time
  • video
  • wbr

Let’s look at a few of these new tags.

FOOTER, HEADER, ARTICLE, and ASIDE

The Footer, Header, Article, and Aside tags do not affect the page rendering. Instead, they are used to organize the content of a page, making it clear which parts belong together.

The Header and Footer tags should contain summary information about the page and the site. These typically belong at the top and bottom of a page, but you will need to add styling to make this happen.

The Article tag is for a blog or newspaper-style site that contains multiple, distinct stories or articles. Enclose each story with the Article tag to distinguish it from other stories on the page. Within each article, you can specify a quote from that article or HTML that relates to that article. Do so by surrounding this HTML with the Aside tag. An example is shown below.

<article>
    <h1>Breaking News</h1>
    <p>The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog</p>
    <aside>
        <h1>Side Note</h1>
        <p>Oh, by the way</p>
    </aside>
</article> 

These tags are examples of semantic markup, which was discussed in Part 1 of this series.

FIGURE AND FIGCAPTION

The <figure> tag is designed to enclose a picture, diagram, code-listing, or other content that stands apart from the body of a document.

The <figcaption> tag is contained within a <figure> tag and contains a caption to describe that figure. There should be at most one figcaption for each figure.

The sample below:

<figure> 
    <img src="babelfish.png"> 
    <figcaption> 
        The mysterious babelfish
    </figcaption> 
</figure> 

would render something like below:

image 

WBR

When a browser is resized or when a web page is viewed at different resolutions, by default, the text on the page wraps to accommodate the new boundaries. Sometimes, this wrapping can make the text look awkward, particular when a long word is involved. The <wbr> tag can help this by splitting a word at the appropriate point.

The <wbr> tag should be inserted in the middle of a long word to indicate where it should be broken, in case it needs to move to a new line.

VIDEO AND AUDIO

In the past, the only way to render multimedia in a browser was to use a plug-in, such as Flash or Silverlight. With HTML5, we now have the <audio> and <video> tags to play multimedia files natively, without the need for an external plug-in.

We can identify the media source using the src attribute in the following example:

<video src=”MyVideo.avi> 

or we can identify multiple video sources by enclosing <source> tags within an <audio> or <video> tag, as in this example:

<video>
    <source src="yyy.mp4" />
    <source src="yyy.ogv" />
    <source src="yyy.webm" />
 </video> 

Supplying multiple media formats is advised if you want your media file to play on multiple platforms. Since there is no universal audio or video format for all platforms, it’s a good idea to encode your multimedia files into different formats for different clients. The browser will try each format in order until it finds a supported one.

Some other useful attributes of the audio and video tags are

  • controls - When present, this attribute adds a set of controls on the page, allowing the user to start, pause, and change volume. This attribute needs no value.
  • loop - When present, this attribute causes the media file to replay after it finishes. This attribute needs no value.
HTML5 | Web
Thursday, December 5, 2013 9:40:00 PM (GMT Standard Time, UTC+00:00)
# Wednesday, December 4, 2013

HTML5 IS BIG

When I think of HTML5, I’m reminded of a quote about space by one of my favourite authors –Douglas Adams. “Space,” says Adams, “is big. Really big. I mean, you may think it’s a long way down to the chemist’s but that’s just peanuts to space.” And the reason this quote reminds me of HTML5 is because HTML 5 is big. Really big. I mean you may think it’s a long way… Well, you get the idea.

The point is that HTML5 is not just one thing. HTML5 is new tags and new attribute to existing tags and new allowed values for existing attributes and new rules about tags and attributes; It’s also a rich set of new JavaScript APIs to enhance your applications; In addition, a new version of Cascading Style Sheets (CSS3) , while not technically part of HTML5, was released at the same time also by the W3C, so we often discuss CSS3 along with HTML5 and I will do so in this paper.

HTML5 is a set of guidelines released by the World Wide Web Consortium (the “W3C” for short) with input from the most popular browser manufacturers, such as Microsoft, Google, the Mozilla Foundation, and Apple.

The browser manufacturers are implementing the HTML5 guidelines at their own pace and in their own order. Due to the enormous scope of HTML5 and the rate at which users tend to upgrade to new browsers, it is unlikely that HTML5 will be on all computers for another decade. Does this mean that HTML5 is irrelevant today? Of course not! Each browser manufacturer is working furiously to implement new features into their browser and encouraging users to upgrade to the latest browser.

You as a developer can start taking advantages of these features today. The challenge, of course, is to build a web application that will use features of new browsers, but still be useable if a user connects with an older browser that does not support the new features. This backwards compatibility is known as “graceful degradation”, meaning that your application downgrades itself gracefully rather than crashing when it encounters a degraded browser. We will talk about ways of making your pages and applications degrade gracefully throughout this paper.

HTML5 GOALS

The W3C had several goals when defining HTML5, including Simplicity, Semantic Markup, and ???

SIMPLICITY

HTML5 is simpler than earlier versions of HTML. For example, the mysterious document declaration at the top of each HTML document has been simplified from

<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC 
    "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" 
    "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"> 

to 

<!DOCTYPE html>

This new version is simple enough that we actually have a prayer of memorizing it.

The <LINK> and <SCRIPT> tag have been simplified. When was the last time you linked to a stylesheet that was not a CSS stylesheet or added client-side script in a language other than JavaScript? I suspect  attributes and assume every LINK tag points to a CSS stylesheet and every SCRIPT refers to JavaScript? That is what the new HTML5 standard does.

Old New
<link type="text-css" rel="stylesheet" href="MyStyle.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="MyStyle.css">
<script type="text/javascript" src="Myscript.js"> <script src="Myscript.js">

SEMANTIC MARKUP

Semantic markup refers to markup that provides meaning to the text it surrounds – meaning beyond simply show to display that text in a browser. This is an important concept as the web evolves from its original goal of a way to store, link, and share documents and pictures of cats.

Semantic markup existed to a lesser extent in earlier versions of HTML. For example, the tags <i> and <em> do the same thing visually when surrounding text: They tilt the top of each letter to the right. However, the <em> tag has some semantic meaning beyond simply telling the browser how to display text. The <em> tag indicates that the reason to italicize the text – With the <em> tag, the marked-up text is italicized to indicate that this text should be emphasized. When one reads the text aloud, one’s voice should rise a little louder or higher to indicate this emphasis. A similar case can be made for the tags <b> and <strong>.

HTML5 | Web
Wednesday, December 4, 2013 9:02:00 PM (GMT Standard Time, UTC+00:00)
# Friday, November 29, 2013
 #
 
Back To Basics

A cascading style sheet (CSS) is used to apply styling to an HTML web page. Separating styling from markup provides cleaner markup, easier reuse of styles, and greater flexibility when maintaining a web page.

This article describes the basics of using CSS to applying styles to a web page.

Cascading style sheets are applied to a web page by either enclosing CSS syntax between a beginning and ending STYLE tag or by creating a separate file (typically with a “.CSS” extension) containing CSS syntax and linking that file to the web page, via the LINK tag. The two syntaxes are shown below:

Inline CSS:

<style>
selector {
     style-name: style-value;
}
tag {
     style-name: style-value;
}
#id {
     style-name: style-value;
}
.classname {
     style-name: style-value;
}
</style> 

Link to stylesheet

<LINK REL=StyleSheet  HREF="style.css" TYPE="text/css">

The CSS syntax consists of a set of selectors, followed by curly brackets (“{” and “}”), containing a set of stylename:stylevalue pairs. For example, in the example below:

div {
     background-color: yellow;
} 

The selector is the word “div”. It tells the style sheet to select all div tags on the page and apply the corresponding style (in this case, yellow background color) to each div.

Historically, the most common type of selectors are

  • Text, to identify a tag name and select all tags of that type (e.g., “div”)
  • Text, preceded by “#”, to identify any element on the page with a given ID (e.g., “#Div1”, which selects any element with the attribute id=“Div1”.)
  • Text, preceded by “.”, to identify any elements on the page with a given class applied to them (e.g., “.Class1”, which selects any element with the attribute class= “Class1”).

Examples of each are below:

Select by Tag

Style:

<style> div
{
background-color: yellow;
} </style>

HTML Markup:

<div>Life, the Universe</div>
<div>and Everything!</div>

Output:

image

Select by ID

Style:

<style> #MyDiv
{
background-color: green;
} </style>

HTML Markup:

<div id="MyDiv">Life, the Universe</div>
<div id="YourDiv">and Everything!</div>

Output:

image

Select by Class name

Style:

<style>
.CoolDiv
 {
    background-color: purple;
 }
</style>

HTML Markup:

<div>Life, the Universe</div>
<div class="CoolDiv">and Everything!</div>

Output:

image

Friday, November 29, 2013 8:28:00 PM (GMT Standard Time, UTC+00:00)
# Tuesday, November 19, 2013
Tuesday, November 19, 2013 3:06:00 AM (GMT Standard Time, UTC+00:00)
# Monday, November 4, 2013
Monday, November 4, 2013 6:00:00 PM (GMT Standard Time, UTC+00:00)
# Monday, October 1, 2012
Monday, October 1, 2012 3:32:00 PM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)
# Saturday, April 28, 2012

Here is the video of Glenn Block’s presentation at the November 2011 Great Lakes Area .NET User Group (GANG) meeting. Glenn described his 2 latest projects: Web API and node.js.

Community | Video | Web
Saturday, April 28, 2012 3:59:00 PM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)
# Tuesday, January 3, 2012
Tuesday, January 3, 2012 2:54:00 AM (GMT Standard Time, UTC+00:00)
# Monday, May 9, 2011
Monday, May 9, 2011 3:45:00 PM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)
# Thursday, April 7, 2011

Mike Amundsen spoke on REST and RESTful Hypermedia at the March meeting of the Great Lakes Area .Net User Group. Here is that presentation

Web
Thursday, April 7, 2011 4:02:00 PM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)
# Tuesday, November 30, 2010


Restful Web Services Cookbook by Subbu Allamaraju

The format of Restful Web Services Cookbook is different than I’m used to. The book presents ideas in the form of a problem, a solution, and a discussion of the solution. It starts with simple concepts like HTTP verbs (GET, POST, PUT, etc.), and moves onto more complex topics, such as content negotiation and sending queries via HTTP.

Most eye-opening for me is the concept of providing in the data sent to the client links to perform related actions on the data, such as updating the record or rolling back changes to a previous version.

In my career, I typically focus on the tools of software development. This book ignored the tools to create and consume web services and focused on the format of the messages passed. It got me thinking at a lower level – about message headers and HTTP verbs – than I am used to thinking.

One hast to get past the fact that Allamaraju does not provide code for generating the requests and responses he describes. He does so in order to keep it technology-neutral and language-neutral. The reader has to apply the concepts to their own development skills in order to implement these recipes.

Restful Web Services Cookbook gave me new insight into the workings of HTTP. It took me out of my comfort zone and taught me a lot.

Books | Web
Tuesday, November 30, 2010 10:07:00 AM (GMT Standard Time, UTC+00:00)
# Wednesday, June 16, 2010

Episode 94


In this show, Joe Wirtley discusses how he addressed the challenges in building an e-commerce site.

Wednesday, June 16, 2010 3:52:49 PM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)
# Monday, April 26, 2010

Episode 83

In this interview, Eric Greene describes the advantages of using a Content Management System to rapidly build a flexible web site

Monday, April 26, 2010 4:02:50 PM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)
# Monday, April 5, 2010

Episode 80

Monday, April 5, 2010 5:20:24 PM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)
# Monday, March 15, 2010

Episode 77

In this interview, Mike Amundsen explains the concept of REST and how a developer can use this pattern to build web applications.

Monday, March 15, 2010 3:21:38 PM (GMT Standard Time, UTC+00:00)