# Friday, October 2, 2009

One of the differences between ASP.NET MVC  and traditional ASP.NET web forms is the URL typed by the user.

In traditional ASP.NET, a URL points to a physical page on disc. Typically one can infer the location of that page by examining the URL. For example, the URL


likely points to a file named MyPage.aspx located in a folder named Folder1.

By contrast, a URL in an ASP.NET MVC application points to an action in a controller. For example, the URL


Tells the MVC framework to pass a parameter of "2" to an action method named Edit in a Customer controller class.

ASP.NET MVC (which I’ll call MVC going forward) uses routing to map a URL to a specific action. Routing is typically configured in the  Application_OnStart method of the global.asax file.  An MVC application contains a System.Web.Routing.RouteTable, which contains a collection of routes on which it can act. When you create a new MVC project, a default route is added to this collection by adding the following code in global.asax.

    "Default",                                              // Route name
    "{controller}/{action}/{id}",                           // URL with parameters
    new { controller = "Home", action = "Index", id = "" }  // Parameter defaults

This code adds a route named "Default" to the route table. This route tells MVC to look for a URL structured similar to the following


When it encounters such a URL, it looks for a controller class with a name based on the first part of the URL. By convention, MVC looks for controllers in the "Controllers" folder and is named with the suffix "Controller". So if the first part of the URL is "Customer", MVC will look in the controllers folder for a class derived from System.Web.Mvc.Controller named "CustomerController".

The second part of the URL identifies an action. The action is a method within the controller that returns a  System.Web.Mvc.ActionResult. The ActionResult identifies the view used to render a response (more on that in a later article). So if the second part of the URL is "Edit", MVC will look for a method in the controller class named "Edit" that returns an ActionResult.

The third part of the above URL defines a parameter for the action, in this case a parameter named "id".

The following URL


causes MVC to search for a class named Controllers\CustomerController, to call the Edit method in this class and to pass the value 2 to the id parameter of the Edit method.

What if the URL does not contain all three parts? The Default route above specifies a default value for each of the parts. If the third part of the URL is omitted, no parameter is passed to the Action. For a URL with no id parameter, we will need to create an action method that does not expect a parameter. If the second part of the URL is omitted, the default action is "Index", so MVC will look for a method named "Index" in the controller class. If the first part of the URL is omitted, it defaults to "Home" so MVC will look for a Controller class named "HomeController" in the Controllers folder.

You can use this same syntax to add more routes to your application. Simply add more calls to routes.MapRoute() in Global.asax. MVC will match URLs to these routes in the order listed.

Notice that the RouteTable and RouteCollection are part of the System.Web.Routing namespace and not part of any MVC namespace. This should tell you that the routing engine is not restricted to MVC applications. It can be used in any ASP.NET application if you want cleaner URLs.

If you find a URL like /Customer/Edit/2 more asthetically pleasing than /Customers/EditCustomer.aspx?CustID=2, you should investigate the routing engine.

Friday, October 2, 2009 2:21:00 PM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)
# Thursday, October 1, 2009

Microsoft first released ASP.NET almost eight years ago. At that time, they created a model they hoped would be familiar (and compelling) to Windows forms developers, particularly to those working in Visual Basic 6.

ASP.NET adopted a development paradigm that mimicked Windows forms. This programming model was referred to as “web forms” and it abstracted away much of the complexity of HTML and HTTP, easing the transition from Windows to the web for many developers. Using web forms, developers could drag controls, such as buttons and textboxes, onto a design surface and add code that ran automatically when a user interacted with a control – such as when a user clicks a button. Pages and controls had events, such as Load and Init that ran at specified times during a page’s creation. By default, each page had a code-behind file – class containing code that responded to page events. These concepts were familiar to Visual Basic developers and this helped to drive adoption of ASP.NET.

But there are some drawbacks to this model. Web forms abstracted away the details of HTML and HTTP, but this abstraction cost the developer control over the rendering of pages and controls. Some developers felt that the web forms framework got in the way of their web developing by hiding these basic constructs. Also, tying code to web form events made it difficult to test much of the application. Testing frameworks evolved that would mimic the behavior of a web server, just to integrate with automated unit testing frameworks.

Recently Microsoft released ASP.NET MVC - a new programming framework designed to build web applications with HTML and HTTP. This framework uses the Model-View-Controller pattern.

The Model-View-Controller pattern is not new. However the release of ASP.NET MVC (I’ll refer to it as "MVC" going forward) has renewed interest in this pattern.

MVC consists of three main parts. You’ll never guess what they are. Give up? They are the Model, the View and the Controller.

The Model contains the application’s data and any business rules associated with that data. It is up to the Model to retrieve and update data from and to a database (or other persistent data store or back-end), to validate that data and to apply any business rules to that data.

The View is a template for the user interface. It should contain no logic at all. In fact, in the ASP.NET MVC framework, by default View web pages don’t even have a code-behind file. A view in this framework consists only of HTML mixed with some placeholders to output values from the model or helper functions based on those values.

The Controller is the glue that binds the Model to the View. By default, each web request in ASP.NET MVC gets routed to a given method (known as an “Action”) of a given class (known as a "Controller"). This method executes and returns either a view or enough information for the framework to identify and render a view.

MVC has two main advantages over web forms –It is easier to test and it gives more control to the developer.

Separating an application into three distinct parts makes it far easier to test.  Launching a user interface in an automated testing framework, such as NUnit or MSTest is possible but it’s clumsy and slow. Minimizing the code in the user interface allows us to test the code more easily.

MVC also gives the developer more control over the rendered HTML (the view) than is possible in web forms. Web forms deliberately abstract away much of the HTML rendering, while MVC forces the developer to write explicit HTML in his View templates.

The release of ASP.NET MVC certainly does not signal the end of web forms.  Many developers appreciate the abstraction that web forms provides for them. Many web forms still exist in production and I have yet to hear anyone refer to these as "legacy" applications or "Classic ASP.NET".

But for those who want more control over their output, a more pure separation of concerns and easier testability, ASP.NET MVC offers a good option.

Thursday, October 1, 2009 1:39:21 PM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)
# Wednesday, September 30, 2009

Episode 56

In this interview, Microsoft Architect Evangelist Brian Prince describes what makes Windows 7 faster, more reliable and simpler.

Wednesday, September 30, 2009 1:16:25 PM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)
# Monday, September 28, 2009

Episode 55

In this interview, Microsoft IT Evangelist Matt Hester describes the new features and enhancements in the upcoming Windows Server 2008 R2.

Monday, September 28, 2009 5:09:10 AM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)
# Saturday, September 26, 2009

We have been hosting Grok Talks at Sogeti since my arrival. Recently we decided to make them available via LiveMeeting and record the presentation. Here is a Grok Talk from September 23 2009.

In this presentation, Sogeti Principal Consultant Dr. David Truxall discusses the challenges of debugging and how to use WinDbg to debug production issues.

.Net | Grok Talk | Sogeti | Video
Saturday, September 26, 2009 4:09:26 PM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)
# Friday, September 25, 2009

Episode 54

Kirstin Juhl came to software development from a career in manufacturing, where she learned about Lean principles. Now she sees those same principles being applied to software development. In this interview, she describes Lean in both worlds and compares the two.

Friday, September 25, 2009 12:24:22 PM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)
# Wednesday, September 23, 2009

Episode 53

Joe Kunk is writing a chapter covering XTraReports for Paul Kimmel's upcoming DevExpress tools book. In this interview, Joe describes XTraReports and how to use it.

Wednesday, September 23, 2009 5:10:51 AM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)
# Tuesday, September 22, 2009

I count many software developers among my friends and colleagues. Many of them tell of writing code in high school or earlier; of hacking during junior high school; or of knowing their career path at an early age.

My programming career began much later in life. Because I grew up with no inkling what I wanted to become, I majored in biochemistry as an undergrad and I studied finance in graduate school. During my eight years of matriculation, I kept busy working as a laborer for a construction company, coaching a high school wrestling team, selling financial securities, interning for a commodity trading advisor and painting. After four years attending grad school at night and working two jobs, I took my MBA and went to work doing accounting and financial analysis for a printer manufacturer. I spent almost four years at this job and it rarely changed. I learned almost nothing after the first year and found myself mightily bored.

At the time, it seemed like misfortune, but I was laid off from this job when the economy turned south and my employer sold off a large subsidiary. Months of job searching during the recession of the early 1990s left me feeling discouraged about my prospects. So I took this as an opportunity to change careers. I had taken a couple programming classes before and I had done well and enjoyed them, so I enrolled at the local university to study Computer Engineering. Sometimes the curriculum was difficult. For example, every other student in my Calculus 4 class had taken the prerequisite class the semester before.  I had taken it nine years earlier.

After two semesters of straight A’s, I was prepared to pursue a degree in Computer Engineering until the phone rang between semesters. It was an old friend of the family calling. He owned a small company in Cincinnati, had heard I knew something about computers and was looking for someone to help him with his computers. I had never been to Cincinnati before, but the offer was good and he was willing to pay for my training so I accepted and moved. Six months later, my house in Michigan sold and my family joined me.

I was a novice at that time and I knew it. I worked my tail off to learn everything I could about networking and programming and computers in general. On most days, I was the first to arrive and the last to leave work. I would get up early and drive in on Saturday to work a few hours before my family woke up. I worked at that company for five years. For most of that time, I was the entire IT department. I managed a LanManager network that I converted to a Windows NT network; I ran a call center of data input operators;  I was the company’s primary computer help desk; I evaluated and bought personal computers and servers and printers; and I wrote all the company’s custom software.

Of these tasks, writing software appealed to me most. In programming, I had the ability to learn technical skills, to practice logical thinking, and to exercise my creativity. It gave me the opportunity to exercise all parts of my brain. I decided I wanted to focus most of my energy on programming.

At that time, my language of choice was FoxPro, which gave me a chance to build Windows user interfaces and to learn about relational databases. I learned about language constructs and programming algorithms and naming conventions and frameworks. I would stay up late into the night reading programming books and technical journals. I enjoyed learning about programming far more than I enjoyed accounting or finance.

When Visual FoxPro was released, I redoubled my efforts, trying to grasp the concepts of object oriented programming and deciding when to use inheritance.

After five years, I got the opportunity to join a local consulting company, where I could focus on software development and training. I would rotate between teaching classes and building business solutions. This was another great learning experience: Teaching made me a better programmer and programming made me a better teacher.

This consulting company was known for its FoxPro expertise but we did a fair amount of Visual Basic programming and I was able to learn my second language. When Microsoft released ASP and Visual InterDev, I learned that and began teaching a class in web development. I taught that class more than any other.  I learned about XML in 2000 and began applying it anywhere I could, like a hammer looking for a nail.

Unfortunately, the company I worked for made some poor business decisions and people began to leave – first the customers, then the consultants. I followed a friend to G.A. Sullivan (aka GAS), a medium-sized consulting company in Cincinnati. I was attracted to GAS because of all the talented developers they had on board already.  Where my old employer seemed to be drifting from day-to-day, the new group had plans. They managed projects with efficiency, they had in-house experts in numerous areas; and they were well-respected by their customers and by other development shops. Not only did I learn a great deal of technology (I was at GAS when I did my first .Net project) but I first began to do public technology presentations at that time. I spoke in front of customers and at the local VB user group (later reborn as CINUG).

To this day, I have not worked with a group as talented and tight as the folks at GA Sullivan. Most of us have moved on, but I remain close friends with a number of my former colleagues from those days.

After a couple years, GAS was purchased by Avanade, a large multi-national consulting company started as a joint venture between Accenture and Microsoft. With such enormous parents, Avanade was able to go after much larger customers. During my years there, I traveled a lot but I was able to work on a number of large enterprise applications, which helped me in understanding scalability, security and how to navigate the bureaucracy of a large corporate environment.

I had my first exposure to Rules Engines, Workflow Foundation, Unit Testing, and Continuous Integration on various projects for Avanade. I spent over a year focused almost exclusively on BizTalk Server, diving deep into Microsoft integration technologies.

I wrote very little code my last year at Avanade as I led a team designing an e-commerce integration project. Instead I got experience writing design specifications and developing project plans for a waterfall project.

In 2007, I left Avanade because I wanted to spend more time with my family. I took a job with Quick Solutions Inc. (QSI) because I was impressed with the smart developers I met there and I admired their passion working and speaking in the community. I got back into coding working on an ASP.Net portal project. I also had a chance to learn from some smart people about Agile development methodologies, Team Foundation Server and the database tools of Visual Studio. Being closer to home allowed me to spend time with the developer community.  For the first time in years, I began actively speaking at conferences and user groups and participating in user groups. In 2008, following a change in ownership, QSI decided to get rid of all their consultants outside of Columbus, OH. 

A year of being active in the local community made it easier to find a new job and I joined Sogeti, my current employer. While here, I’ve worked in a variety of industries and even did my first SharePoint project. I’ve kept active in the development community, in part as a way of expanding my own knowledge of technologies.

I’ve had a number of stops over the past 15 years and I’ve learned something new everywhere I’ve been. Looking back, losing my job as an accountant was a good thing for career and my life.  

Tuesday, September 22, 2009 5:06:01 AM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)
# Monday, September 21, 2009

Episode 52

Often, an application experiences a bottleneck retrieving and delivering data from a database. In this interfview, Jeremiah Peschka discusses ways to troubleshoot performance issues within a database.

Monday, September 21, 2009 12:29:45 PM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)
# Sunday, September 20, 2009

I have been working for Sogeti for almost exactly a year now and I'm proud to announce that Microsoft has awarded our team the Partner of the Year award. Although the award goes to the entire unit, it was given for a SharePoint intranet portal produced for Oakland County and most of the work on that project was done by Mike Hacker.

Congratulations to Mike and to Sogeti on this prestigious award.

You can read more about this at http://us.sogeti.com/news/2009/08/31/sogeti-usa-wins-2009-microsoft-central-region-part/

Partner of the Year award

Sunday, September 20, 2009 1:37:30 AM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)